UPSC Essentials | Weekly news express : Heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh, Lokniti-CSDS’s survey, Urea and more

UPSC Essentials | Weekly news express : Heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh, Lokniti-CSDS’s survey, Urea and more

The Indian Express’ UPSC weekly news express covers some of the important  topics of current affairs news from this week to help you prepare for UPSC-CSE. In today’s weekly news express let us dive deep into the following questions:

1. What do heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh tell us about cloudbursts and landslides?

2. What Supreme Court’s handbook on gender stereotypes says?

3.  What Lokniti-CSDS’s latest survey reveals?

4. What is 3D printing, as India gets its first 3D-printed post office?

5. How to make Urea more efficient as a fertiliser?

Heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh: When is high rainfall termed as a ‘cloudburst’?

WHY IN NEWS ?

— Following heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh on Monday, landslides have occurred in the state. Uttarakhand has also witnessed high rainfall.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

What is a cloudburst?

Freedom Sale

A cloudburst is a localised but intense rainfall activity. While it can also occur in plains, the phenomenon is most common in hilly regions.

— Not all instances of very heavy rainfall, however, are cloudbursts. A cloudburst has a very specific definition: Rainfall of 10 cm or more in an hour over a roughly 10 km x 10 km area is classified as a cloudburst event. By this definition, 5 cm of rainfall in a half-hour period over the same area would also be categorised as a cloudburst.

— To put this in perspective, in a normal year, India, as a whole, receives about 116 cm of rainfall over the entire year. This means if the entire rainfall everywhere in India during a year was spread evenly over its area, the total accumulated water would be 116 cm high. There are, of course, huge geographical variations in rainfall within the country, and some areas receive over 10 times more than that amount in a year. But on average, any place in India can be expected to receive about 116 cm of rain in a year.

— During a cloudburst event, a place receives about 10% of this annual rainfall within an hour. It is a worse situation than what Mumbai had experienced on July 26, 2005, which is one of the most extreme instances of rainfall in India in recent years. At that time, Mumbai had received 94 cm of rain over a 24-hour period, resulting in the deaths of over 400 people and more than USD 1 billion in economic losses.

How common are cloudbursts?

— Cloudbursts are not uncommon events, particularly during the monsoon months. Most of these happen in the Himalayan states where the local topology, wind systems, and temperature gradients between the lower and upper atmosphere facilitate the occurrence of such events.

— However, not every event that is described as a cloudburst is actually, by definition, a cloudburst. That is because these events are highly localized. They take place in very small areas which are often devoid of rainfall-measuring instruments. The consequences of these events, however, are not confined to small areas.

— Because of the nature of the terrain, the heavy rainfall events often trigger landslides and flash floods, causing extensive destruction downstream. This is the reason why every sudden downpour that leads to the destruction of life and property in the hilly areas gets described as a “cloudburst”, irrespective of whether the amount of rainfall meets the defining criteria. At the same time, it is also possible that actual cloudburst events in remote locations aren’t recorded.

Can cloudbursts be forecast?

— The IMD forecasts rainfall events well in advance, but it does not predict the quantum of rainfall — in fact, no meteorological agency does. The forecasts can be about light, heavy, or very heavy rainfall, but weather scientists do not have the capability to predict exactly how much rain is likely to fall at any given place.

— Additionally, the forecasts are for a relatively large geographical area, at best at a district level. As they zoom in over smaller areas, the forecasts get more and more uncertain. Theoretically, it is not impossible to forecast rainfall over a very small area as well, but it requires a very dense network of weather instruments, and computing capabilities that seem unfeasible with current technologies.

— As a result, specific cloudburst events cannot be forecast. But there are warnings for heavy to very heavy rainfall events, and these are routinely forecast four to five days in advance. The possibility of extremely heavy rainfall, which could result in cloudburst-like situations, is forecast six to 12 hours in advance.

Are cloudburst incidents increasing lately?

— There is no long-term trend that suggests that cloudbursts, as defined by the IMD, are rising. What is well established, however, is that incidents of extreme rainfall, as also other extreme weather events, are increasing — not just in India but across the world.

— While the overall amount of rainfall in India has not changed substantially, an increasing proportion of rainfall is happening in a short span of time. That means that the wet spells are very wet, and are interspersed with prolonged dry spells even in the rainy season.

—This kind of pattern, attributed to climate change, does suggest that cloudburst events might also be on the rise.

JUST FYI: Landslides in hill states 

 Himachal has always been highly vulnerable to landslides during the monsoon. Over the years, the vulnerability of the steeply sloping, geologically young and unstable Himalayan ranges has been greatly exacerbated by human activity such as deforestation, road-building, terracing, and changes in agriculture patterns that require more intense watering.

— The National Institute of Disaster Management’s (NIDM’s) ‘Landslide Hazard Zonation Atlas of India’ puts most of Himachal Pradesh — an area more than 38,000 sq km — in the “high” hazard zone, which includes areas that are the second most prone to landslides. A smaller area, about 7,800 sq km, lies in the most vulnerable “very high to severe” landslide hazard zone.

As heavy rain and landslides continue to ravage hill states in the country, a 2019 strategy document published by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) shows that concerns related to poor urban planning, lack of comprehensive land use policy, lax enforcement of construction laws and excessive tourism in these regions had been flagged then too. The document pointed out how building plans of hill states were copied from the Delhi Master Plan. The document, National Landslide Risk Management Strategy, is a result of three years of research, field visits and consultation with stakeholders by a task force of experts constituted by NDMA in 2016.

“The widespread property loss during recent landslides and related hazards like cloudburst and flash floods have shown that most of the construction plans are ill-conceived and do not follow standard norms. The design codes are generally not followed even by the government departments. This has created an alarming situation where a large number of unsafe building stock is added each year to the already huge number of existing unsafe buildings in hostile climate, fragile environment and tectonically active unstable hilly terrain,” the document said.

In its report published in September 2019, the NDMA stated that there was “no land use policy in the country at national, state and local level for implementation”.

“The cities of the Himalayas are growing and beginning to turn into mountains of garbage and plastic, untreated sewage, chronic water shortages, unplanned urban growth and even local air pollution because of vehicles. These towns need to be planned, particularly keeping in mind the rush of summer tourists. Many states have experimented from banning plastics to taxing tourists to better respond to these issues. But they need support and new thinking,” the document said.

The document highlighted problems related to planning and design of buildings, inadequate infrastructure, improper housing/building stock having insufficient strength, unprecedented cutting of vegetation and slopes etc. in hill towns. It flagged how building regulations were copied from the Delhi Master Plan.

According to the document, while municipal bylaws must provide for construction activity to be regulated in areas which fall in hazard zones, in many cases these provisions have not been strictly enforced. It said the State Municipal Acts in all the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) and Western Ghats (WG) states are more focused on other issues than landslide problems.

The report said cutting costs was among the reasons for vulnerable buildings. “In the hills, it’s imperative to build on pillars that rest on rock strata. People raise pillars for buildings which are embedded in loose soil because the cost of construction goes up substantially if deeper pillars are to be made.”

The 2019 report had made certain recommendations with regard to such vulnerabilities. “Where cutting of hill slope in an area causes ecological damage and slope instability in adjacent areas, such cuttings shall not be undertaken unless appropriate measures are taken. No construction should be ordinarily undertaken in areas having slopes above 30 degrees or areas which fall in landslide hazard zones or areas falling on the spring lines and first order streams.”

— The report also emphasised the necessity of load bearing tests, hazard zonation and slope and land-use maps to guide urban planners for clearing constructions.

It also flagged paucity of basic data (e.g., rainfall) in mountainous areas, especially in the Northeast.

— It said there was a need for a national strategy to focus on implementation and enforcement of laws/regulations and accountability.

On mitigation of landslides, the 2019 report underlined that no Union ministry had any scheme for landslide risk management in the country.

“It is noticed that due to resource crunch, most of the States, particularly Hilly States, are unable to take up mitigation, rehabilitation and reconstruction measures,” it said.

On frequent destruction of infrastructure due to landslides, the report said, “The present engineering practice relies on fragmentary approaches involving quick-fix treatments of landslides, which end up in their recurrence year after year at the very same locations. Paucity of funds, absence of delivery capacity and urgency to deal with immediate landslide danger are generally cited as reasons for this continuing practice.”

“The permanent solutions to our major landslide problems may appear at the face value to be capital intensive and even unaffordable, but in the true analysis, the benefits of permanently fixing landslides will far overweigh,” it said.

Point to ponder: Policy is governed by the perception that the tourism industry is the key to prosperity. An important element of this perception is the underestimation of the cost of unbridled tourism for the fragile Himalayan ecology. Discuss.

1. MCQ:

Which of the above statement(s) is/are true?

1. Rainfall of 10 cm or more in an hour over a roughly 10 km x 10 km area is classified as a cloudburst event.

2. It is only seen in hilly areas and not in plains.

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

What SC handbook on gender stereotypes says?

WHY IN NEWS?

— A “career woman” is only a “woman”; “eve teasing” is “street sexual harassment” and “forcible rape” is simply “rape.” These corrections in sexual stereotypes are part of a handbook for judges and other legal practitioners released Wednesday by Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud.

“Where the language of judicial discourse reflects antiquated or incorrect ideas about women, it inhibits the transformative project of the law and the Constitution of India, which seek to secure equal rights to all persons, irrespective of gender,” the handbook states.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Apurva Vishwanath Explains:

What is the handbook?

— The SC handbook is a 30-page booklet that aims to assist judges and the legal community in identifying, understanding and combating stereotypes about women. The handbook identifies common stereotypical words and phrases used about women, many of them routinely found in judgements.

— For example, in the 2017 Supreme Court ruling awarding the death penalty for the convicts in the Delhi gang-rape case, the verdict repeatedly uses the word “ravished” to say raped.

“It is absolutely obvious that the accused persons had found an object for enjoyment in her and, as is evident, they were obsessed with the singular purpose sans any feeling to ravish her as they liked, treat her as they felt and, if we allow ourselves to say, the gross sadistic and beastly instinctual pleasures came to the forefront when they, after ravishing her, thought it to be just a matter of routine to throw her along with her friend out of the bus and crush them,” the Court said.

— The handbook quotes other judgements where judges unwittingly use stereotypical characterisations of women.

“A girl aged 24 years is weak and vulnerable, capable of being exploited in many ways,” a 2017 judgement of the Kerala High Court said.

— Some of the “stereotype promoting language” the handbook flags as “incorrect”, and suggests “alternative language (preferred)” for, include ‘concubine/keep’ for which the suggestion is ‘woman with whom a man has had romantic or sexual relations outside of marriage’; for ‘a woman of easy virtue’, simply ‘woman’; for ‘child prostitute’; a ‘child who has been trafficked’; and for ‘Hormonal (to describe a woman’s emotional state)’, the use of ‘a gender neutral term to describe the emotion (e.g., compassionate or enthusiastic)’.

Why is it important for judges to use the right words?

— The handbook argues that the language a judge uses reflects not only their interpretation of the law, but their perception of society as well.

“Even when the use of stereotypes does not alter the outcome of a case, stereotypical language may reinforce ideas contrary to our constitutional ethos. Language is critical to the life of the law. Words are the vehicle through which the values of the law are communicated. Words transmit the ultimate intention of the lawmaker or the judge to the nation,” it states.

Have there been similar efforts in other countries?

— There have been projects in other countries, pushed by both academia and practitioners, which hold up a mirror for the court’s practices.

For example, the Women’s Court of Canada, a collective of female lawyers, academics and activists write “shadow judgements” on equality law.

— In India, the Indian Feminist Judgement Project also ‘rewrites’ judgements with a feminist critique. It is led by advocate Jhuma Sen, Dr Aparna Chandra at the National Law School of India University, Bangalore, and Dr Rachna Chaudhary at the Ambedkar University, Delhi.

Point to ponder: SC’s move to combat stereotypes in judicial language is a welcome step towards ensuring greater gender equity and justice. Discuss.

2. MCQ:

Consider the following pairs:

1. Vineeta Sharma v Rakesh Sharma (2020): The Supreme Court affirmed the right of a woman in exercising her sexual freedom in personal sphere and placed its reliance on the right to privacy flowing from Article 21

2. The Secretary, Ministry of Defence v Babita Puniya & Ors. (2020) case: The Supreme Court held that all women army officers are eligible for permanent commissions, allowing them to be in commanding roles.

3. In Shayra Bano v Union of India (2017): The Supreme Court declared that the practice of instant triple talaq (talaq-e-bidat) is against the basic tenets of the Quran.

How many of the above pairs are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) All three

(d) None of the above

What Lokniti-CSDS’s latest survey reveals?

WHY IN NEWS?

— The findings, which are part of a report released by Lokniti-CSDS earlier this month, suggest that the youth identify challenges relating to the economy as the most significant facing the nation. The report offers insights into career aspirations, job preferences, and expectations of younger Indians.

— More than one in three (36%) Indians between the ages of 15 and 34 believe unemployment is the biggest problem before the country. About one in six (16%) think it is poverty, and 13% think it is inflation.

— About 6% of respondents identified corruption as the most significant challenge; 4% each identified problems in education and high population.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Vibha Attri and Sanjay Kumar write:

— The proportion of youth identifying unemployment as the biggest problem has increased by 18 percentage points from the results of a similar survey in 2016. The share of those identifying price rise as the primary concern has increased by 7 percentage points.

— While the data from the 2023 survey — conducted in 18 states with a sample of 9,316 respondents — show unemployment as a significant concern across all economic classes, it is particularly pronounced among middle-class youth.

— Also, as many as 40% of highly educated respondents (graduate and above) identified unemployment as the most pressing concern. In contrast, only 27% of non-literate individuals cited unemployment as their primary concern, likely due to their greater willingness to take on a range of jobs.

Forty-two per cent of men said unemployment was the most significant problem; among young women, this number was 31%.Poverty and price rise emerged as a more prominent problem for youth from lower economic backgrounds.A larger proportion of women (across economic classes) expressed concerns about price rise and poverty.

— Almost half of respondents (49%) said they were engaged in some form of work — 40% had full-time jobs; 9% were working part-time. Almost a fourth (23%) of youth with jobs were self-employed. Sixteen per cent were professionals such as doctors or engineers,15% were involved in agriculture, and semi-unskilled and skilled workers made up 27% of the total. Only 6% were in government jobs.

— About 20% of working youth chose their job out of an interest; an almost equal proportion (18%) took the only option they had.

— Asked what their ideal occupation would be if they had the freedom to choose, almost 16% of youth mentioned jobs in the health sector, such as doctors, nurses, and other medical staff.

— The education sector was the second most preferred (14%), followed by science and technology-related jobs and starting their own businesses (10% each). Six per cent wanted to be in a government job. Interestingly, only 2% of respondents said they would like to continue in their current jobs.

Govt job vs Private jobs: Asked to choose from a government job, a private job, or setting up their own business, three out of five respondents chose government jobs, and more than one out of four opted for own business.

— Time series data from previous rounds of youth studies show the consistent appeal of government jobs over the last decade and a half. The preference for setting up an own business has grown consistently over this period — from 16% in 2007 to 27% in 2023.

Point to ponder: Even as the unemployment rate has fallen from the highs observed during the pandemic, it remains high among the youth. Why?

3. MCQ:

Disguised unemployment generally means (UPSC CSE 2013)

(a) large number of people remain unemployed

(b) alternative employment is not available

(c) marginal productivity of labour is zero

(d) productivity of workers is low

How does 3D printing work?

WHY IN NEWS ?

India’s first 3D-printed post office was virtually inaugurated by Union Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw in Bengaluru’s Cambridge Layout on Friday (August 18). Its construction was completed in just 43 days — two days ahead of the deadline.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Alind Chauhan Explains

— Multinational company Larsen & Toubro Limited built the post office with technological support from IIT Madras under the guidance of Professor Manu Santhanam, Building Technology and Construction Management Division, Department of Civil Engineering.

Invented in the 1980s, 3D printing burst into the mainstream around the 2010s, when many thought it would take over the world. The technology, however, at the time was expensive, slow and prone to making errors. In recent years, some of these flaws have been done away with, making 3D printing more prevalent than ever before. For instance, it’s being used in automotive and aerospace sectors to make parts of cars and rockets respectively.

What exactly is 3D printing ? And how do 3D printers work?

— 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a process that uses computer-created design to make three-dimensional objects layer by layer. It is an additive process, in which layers of a material like plastic, composites or bio-materials are built up to construct objects that range in shape, size, rigidity and colour.

How is 3D printing done?

— To carry out 3D printing, one needs a personal computer connected to a 3D printer. All they need to do is design a 3D model of the required object on computer-aid design (CAD) software and press ‘print’. The 3D printer does the rest of the job.

— 3D printers construct the desired object by using a layering method, which is the complete opposite of the subtractive manufacturing processes. Think about the great Italian sculptor Michelangelo making his masterpiece sculpture David. He famously carved out the colossal statue from one single block of marble. This is an ideal example of the subtractive manufacturing method.

3D printers, on the other hand, build from the bottom up by piling on layer after layer until the object looks exactly like it was envisioned. “The (3D) printer acts generally the same as a traditional inkjet printer in the direct 3D printing process, where a nozzle moves back and forth while dispensing a wax or plastic-like polymer layer-by-layer, waiting for that layer to dry, then adding the next level. It essentially adds hundreds or thousands of 2D prints on top of one another to make a three-dimensional object,” a report by Built In, an online tech news outlet, said.

Notably, these machines are capable of printing anything from ordinary objects like a ball or a spoon to complex moving parts like hinges and wheels.

“You could print a whole bike – handlebars, saddle, frame, wheels, brakes, pedals and chain – ready assembled, without using any tools. It’s just a question of leaving gaps in the right places,” The Independent said in a report.

What are some of the notable examples of 3D printing?

— As mentioned before, 3D printing is being used in a host of different industries like healthcare, automobile and aerospace. In May this year, aerospace manufacturing company Relativity Space launched a test rocket made entirely from 3D-printed parts, measuring 100 feet tall and 7.5 feet wide. Shortly after its take off, however, it suffered a failure.

At the peak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, the healthcare industry used 3D printers to make much-needed medical equipment, like swabs, face shields, and masks, as well as the parts to fix their ventilators.

Point to ponder: Technology will change the way we look at labour, capital and skills. Comment. 

4. MCQ:

“3D printing” has applications in which of the following? (UPSC CSE 2018)

(1) Preparation of confectionery items

(2) Manufacture of bionic ears

(3) Automotive industry

(4) Reconstructive surgeries

(5) Data processing technologies

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only

(b) 2, 3 and 5 only

(c) 1 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

How to make Urea more efficient as a fertiliser?

WHY IN NEWS?

— Late last month, Prime Minister Narendra Modi officially launched ‘Urea Gold’ fertiliser. Developed by the state-owned Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd (RCF), it is basically urea fortified with sulphur.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Harish Damodaran Explains

Normal urea contains 46% of a single plant nutrient: Nitrogen or N. Urea Gold has 37% N plus 17% sulphur or S and aims at two things.

AIM 1: to deliver S along with N. Indian soils are deficient in S, which oilseeds and pulses – the country is significantly import-dependent in both – particularly require.

AIM 2: to improve the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of urea. Coating of S over urea ensures a more gradual release of N. By prolonging the urea action, the plants stay greener for a longer time.

— Farmers tend to apply urea when they notice the leaves turning yellowish. If the crop retains greenness for an extended period, they would reduce the frequency of application and use, say, only two bags, as against three, for an acre of paddy or wheat.

RCF is yet to commercially introduce Urea Gold or reveal any pricing details.

What is the the problem ?

Urea is India’s most widely used fertiliser, with its consumption/sales rising from 26.7 million tonnes (mt) to 35.7 mt between 2009-10 and 2022-23. The Modi government’s measures, such as mandatory coating of all urea with neem oil and reducing the size of bags from 50 to 45 kg, enabled a slight dip after 2013-14 till 2017-18. But the subsequent period has shown renewed uptrend.

There are two concerns over rising urea consumption.

The first is imports, which accounted for 7.6 mt out of the total 35.7 mt sold last fiscal. Even with regard to domestically-manufactured urea, the feedstock used – natural gas – is mostly imported. India’s nearly 36-mt annual consumption of urea is today next only to China’s 51 mt, with the latter’s production largely coal-based.

The second concern is NUE. Barely 35% of the N applied through urea in India is actually utilised by crops to produce harvested yields. The balance 65% N is unavailable to the plants, much of it “lost” through release into the atmosphere as ammonia gas or leaching below the ground after conversion into nitrate. Declining NUE, from an estimated 48% in the early 1960s, has resulted in farmers applying more and more fertiliser for the same yield.

What is the fortification solution ?

— Fortification of a component, in general means, to increase its effictiveness.The soil, in turn is enriched from basic, macro and micronutrients to well development and growth of crop. It enhances the biological activities inside the soil. Also,the efficiency of crop competitors controlling measures is increased.

There is growing consensus, including in the government, that India cannot sustain the above increase in consumption of urea – or even di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), muriate of potash and other fertilisers containing just primary nutrients: N, P (phosphorus) and K (potassium).

— A country with hardly any natural gas or rock phosphate, potash and sulphur reserves shouldn’t, beyond a point, encourage the consumption of these commodity fertilisers in plain-vanilla form. Instead, they must be coated with secondary nutrients (S, calcium and magnesium) as well as micronutrients (zinc, boron, manganese, molybdenum, iron, copper and nickel).

— Coating not only allows urea or DAP to be used as “carrier products” for delivering secondary and micro nutrients to crops. It improves their own N and P use efficiency through synergetic effects and controlled release that, in the case of urea, helps reduce losses through ammonia volatilisation and nitrate leaching.

— Yara International, a $24.1 billion-revenue Norwegian crop nutrition company, has a proprietary ‘Procote’ technology for coating all commodity fertilisers with any micronutrient. Its Indian subsidiary – which has a 1.2-mt urea plant at Babrala in Uttar Pradesh’s Sambhal district – launched ‘Procote Zn’ for coating of urea with zinc oxide during the 2022 kharif season.

“Punjab and Haryana farmers growing paddy usually mix 5 kg of zinc sulphate (having 33% Zn content) with a 45-kg bag of urea per acre 10-12 days after transplanting. Here, they need apply just 325-350 ml of Procote Zn (containing 39.5% Zn), again by mixing with 45 kg of urea,” said Sanjiv Kanwar, managing director, Yara Fertilisers India Pvt. Ltd.

Being a powder, zinc sulphate is prone to losses during mixing and application. The micronutrient particles also don’t get uniformly distributed over all the urea prills that are of 1-2 mm diameter. Procote Zn, by contrast, is a palm oil-based suspension concentrate that farmers can simply pour, mix and rub in their urea before application.

“There’s no dust loss and every single urea prill will now carry a thin lining of Zn, even with only 325-350 ml and not 5 kg of coating material,” claimed Kanwar. Yara is planning next to commercialise ‘Procote B’ (boron) and ‘Procote BMZ’ (boron, manganese and zinc) in India – based on the same dust-free micronutrient coating technology platform – for which field trials are underway.

What is the hurdle ?

That has to do with pricing.The government currently permits coating of urea with zinc (for which fertiliser concerns can recover an extra Rs 542 per tonne or about Rs 24 for a 45-kg bag) and sulphur (for which the MRP is still to be finalized). Urea apart, an additional subsidy of Rs 300 and Rs 500 per tonne is being provided for P&K fertilisers fortified with boron and zinc, respectively.

— These additional rates aren’t attractive enough for companies to market zincated urea, boronated DAP or any of the 20-odd fortified products recognised under the Fertiliser Control Order.

Point to ponder: How the govt can correct the worsening nutrient imbalance from over-application of urea and DAP ? 

5. MCQ:

What are the advantages of fertigation in agriculture? ( UPSC CSE 2020)

1. Controlling the alkalinity of irrigation water is possible.

2. Efficient application of Rock Phosphate and all other phosphatic fertilizers is possible.

3. Increased availability of nutrients to plants is possible.

4. Reduction in the leaching of chemical nutrients is possible.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1, 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 2, 3 and 4 only

ANSWERS TO MCQs: 1 (c), 2 (b), 3 (c), 4 (d), 5 (c)

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